If you sin by not giving the evidence you have about a legal case, whether you saw something yourself or heard about it, you bear responsibility for your guilt. If you touch anything unclean such as the dead body of any unclean* wild animal or farm animals or vermin, even if you're unaware of it, you become unclean and guilty. If you touch something unclean from someone else who is unclean, even if you're unaware of it, you become guilty. If you foolishly swear to do something, (whether good or bad, and in whatever way people impulsively swear an oath), even if you're unaware of it being wrong, when you eventually realize it, you are guilty.
If you become guilty in one of these ways, you must confess your sin, and you must take your guilt offering of a female lamb or goat to the Lord as a sin offering for your sin. The priest will make your sin right.
If you can't afford a lamb, you may offer to the Lord as compensation for your sin two turtledoves or two young pigeons, one as a sin offering and one as a burnt offering. You are to take them to the priest, who shall present the first one as the sin offering. He is to wring its head from the neck without removing it completely. Then he is to sprinkle some of the blood of the sin offering on the side of the altar while the rest of the blood is poured out at the bottom of the altar. It is a sin offering. 10 The priest must then prepare the second bird as a burnt offering according to the regulations. In this way the priest will make you right for your sin, and you will be forgiven.
11 If you can't afford two turtledoves or two young pigeons you may bring a tenth of an ephah of the best flour as a sin offering. Don't put olive oil or frankincense on it, because it is a sin offering. 12 Take it to the priest, who shall take a handful as areminder part’ and burn it on the altar on top of the burnt offerings to the Lord. It is a sin offering. 13 This is how the priest will make right any of these sins you have committed, and you will be forgiven. The rest of the offering will belong to the priest, just like the grain offering.”
14 The Lord told Moses, 15 If any of you neglects unintentionally all that the Lord has declared belong to him and are holy, you must bring your guilt offering to the Lord: a ram without defects from your herd or but one of equivalent value in silver shekels (according to the sanctuary shekel standard). It is a guilt offering. 16 As regards any holy requirement you failed to contribute, you must pay compensation by adding a fifth of its value to it and then give it to the priest, who will make it right with the ram as a guilt offering, and you will be forgiven.
17 If you sin and break any of the Lord's commandments, even if you are unaware of it, you are still guilty and bear responsibility for your guilt. 18 You must take to the priest a ram without defects of the appropriate value from the flock as a guilt offering. Then the priest will make right for you the wrong you did in ignorance, and you will be forgiven. 19 It is a guilt offering because you were guilty as far as the Lord was concerned.”
* 5:2 The concept of ceremonial uncleanness is frequent here and in other books of the Old Testament. It is primarily a “religious” concept but does have a basis in some areas related to aspects of health and hygiene. 5:15 This would include everything the Lord has said his people must give to him, including for example firstfruits, tithes, the firstborn etc.