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What then shall we say *that Abraham our father has discovered according to the flesh? If Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. For what does the Scripture say? “Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.” Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift, but as something owed to him. However, to the one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness, just as David also speaks of the blessedness of the one to whom God counts righteousness apart from works:
 
Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven,
and whose sins are covered.
Blessed is the man against whom the Lord will never count sin.”
 
Is this blessedness then only for the circumcised, or is it also for the uncircumcised? For we say, “Faith was counted to Abraham as righteousness.” 10 How then was it counted? When he was circumcised, or uncircumcised? Not when he was circumcised, but when he was uncircumcised. 11 He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised, so that he might be the father of all who believe when they are uncircumcised, so that righteousness might be counted to them as well, 12 and so that he might be the father of circumcision to those who are not only circumcised, but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had when he was uncircumcised.
13 For the promise to Abraham, or to his offspring, that he would be the heir of the world was not through the law, but through the righteousness of faith. 14 For if those who are of the law are heirs, faith has been made void and the promise has been invalidated, 15 because the law brings wrath; for where there is no law, there is no transgression.
16 For this reason the promise comes by faith, so that it may be according to grace and be guaranteed to all Abraham's offspring, not only to the one who is of the law, but also to the one who is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all 17 (just as it is written, “I have made yoʋ the father of many nations”). He is our father in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into being what does not yet exist. 18 Against all hope Abraham believed in hope that he would become the father of many nations according to what had been spoken: “So shall yoʋr offspring be.” 19 Because he was not weak in faith, he §did not consider his own body, *now as good as dead (since he was somewhere around a hundred years old), or the deadness of Sarah's womb. 20 And he did not waver in unbelief at the promise of God but was strengthened in faith, giving glory to God 21 and being fully assured that God was able to do what he had promised. 22 Therefore, “it was counted to him as righteousness.” 23 Now the statement “it was counted to himwas not written only for Abraham's sake, 24 but for ours also. It will be counted to us who believe in him who raised Jesus our Lord from the dead, 25 who was delivered up for our trespasses and raised for our justification.
* 4:1 that Abraham our father has discovered according to the flesh ¦ that Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh, has discovered NA SBL TH ¦ about Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh WH 4:11 as well ¦ — SBL TH WH 4:15 for ¦ but CT § 4:19 did not consider … or ¦ considered … and CT * 4:19 now ¦ — SBL