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About partiality
Ἀδελφοί μου, μὴ ἐν προσωποληψίαις* ἔχετε τὴν πίστιν τοῦ Κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ, τῆς Δόξης. Ἐὰν γὰρ εἰσέλθῃ εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν ὑμῶν ἀνὴρ χρυσοδακτύλιος, ἐν ἐσθῆτι λαμπρᾷ, εἰσέλθῃ δὲ καὶ πτωχὸς ἐν ῥυπαρᾷ ἐσθῆτι, καὶ ἐπιβλέψητε ἐπὶ τὸν φοροῦντα τὴν λαμπρὰν ἐσθῆτα§ καὶ εἴπητε αὐτῷ,* «Σὺ κάθου ὧδε καλῶς,» καὶ τῷ πτωχῷ εἴπητε, «Σὺ στῆθι ἐκεῖ,» ἢ «Κάθου ὧδε§ ὑπὸ τὸ ὑποπόδιόν μου,» οὐ* διεκρίθητε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς καὶ ἐγένεσθε κριταὶ διαλογισμῶν πονηρῶν;
Ἀκούσατε, ἀδελφοί μου ἀγαπητοί. Οὐχ ὁ Θεὸς ἐξελέξατο τοὺς πτωχοὺς τοῦ κόσμου πλουσίους ἐν πίστει καὶ κληρονόμους τῆς βασιλείας ἧς ἐπηγγείλατο τοῖς ἀγαπῶσιν αὐτόν; Ὑμεῖς δὲ ἠτιμάσατε τὸν πτωχόν. Οὐχ οἱ πλούσιοι καταδυναστεύουσιν ὑμῶν, καὶ αὐτοὶ ἕλκουσιν ὑμᾶς εἰς κριτήρια; Οὐκ αὐτοὶ βλασφημοῦσιν τὸ καλὸν ὄνομα τὸ ἐπικληθὲν ἐφ᾿ ὑμᾶς; Εἰ μέντοι νόμον τελεῖτε βασιλικὸν κατὰ τὴν Γραφήν, «Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν,» καλῶς ποιεῖτε· εἰ δὲ προσωποληπτεῖτε,§ ἁμαρτίαν ἐργάζεσθε, ἐλεγχόμενοι ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου ὡς παραβάται. 10 Ὅστις γὰρ ὅλον τὸν νόμον τηρήσει,* πταίσει δὲ ἐν ἑνί, γέγονεν πάντων ἔνοχος. 11 Ὁ γὰρ εἰπών, «Μὴ μοιχεύσῃς,» εἶπεν καί, «Μὴ φονεύσῃς.» Εἰ δὲ οὐ μοιχεύσεις, φονεύσεις§ δέ, γέγονας παραβάτης νόμου.
12 Οὕτως λαλεῖτε καὶ οὕτως ποιεῖτε ὡς διὰ νόμου ἐλευθερίας μέλλοντες κρίνεσθαι 13 (ἡ γὰρ κρίσις ἀνήλεος* τῷ μὴ ποιήσαντι ἔλεος). Κατακαυχᾶται ἔλεον κρίσεως.
Faith and works
14 Τί τὸ ὄφελος, ἀδελφοί μου, ἐὰν πίστιν λέγῃ τις§ ἔχειν, ἔργα δὲ μὴ ἔχει;* Μὴ δύναται ἡ πίστις σῶσαι αὐτόν; 15 Ἐὰν δὲ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἀδελφὴ γυμνοὶ ὑπάρχωσιν, καὶ λειπόμενοι ὦσιν τῆς ἐφημέρου τροφῆς, 16 εἴπῃ δέ τις αὐτοῖς ἐξ ὑμῶν, «Ὑπάγετε ἐν εἰρήνῃ, θερμαίνεσθε καὶ χορτάζεσθε,» μὴ δῶτε δὲ αὐτοῖς τὰ ἐπιτήδεια τοῦ σώματος, τί τὸ ὄφελος; 17 Οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις, ἐὰν μὴ ἔργα ἔχῃ,§ νεκρά ἐστιν, καθ᾿ ἑαυτήν. 18 (Ἀλλ᾿ ἐρεῖ τις· «Σὺ πίστιν ἔχεις κἀγὼ ἔργα ἔχω. Δεῖξόν μοι τὴν πίστιν σου ἐκ* τῶν ἔργων σου, κἀγὼ δείξω σοι ἐκ τῶν ἔργων μου τὴν πίστιν μου.»§ 19 Σὺ πιστεύεις ὅτι ὁ Θεὸς εἷς ἐστιν.* Καλῶς ποιεῖς. Καὶ τὰ δαιμόνια πιστεύουσιν—καὶ φρίσσουσιν.) 20 Θέλεις δὲ γνῶναι, ὦ ἄνθρωπε κενέ, ὅτι ἡ πίστις χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων νεκρά ἐστιν;
Examples
21 Ἁβραὰμ ὁ πατὴρ ἡμῶν οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη ἀνενέγκας Ἰσαὰκ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τὸ θυσιαστήριον; 22 Βλέπεις ὅτι ἡ πίστις συνήργει τοῖς ἔργοις αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἔργων ἡ πίστις ἐτελειώθη. 23 Καὶ ἐπληρώθη ἡ Γραφὴ ἡ λέγουσα, «Ἐπίστευσεν δὲ Ἁβραὰμ τῷ Θεῷ, καὶ ἐλογίσθη αὐτῷ εἰς δικαιοσύνην.» Καὶ ‹φίλος Θεοῦ› ἐκλήθη. 24 Ὁρᾶτε τοίνυν ὅτι§ ἐξ ἔργων δικαιοῦται ἄνθρωπος, καὶ οὐκ ἐκ πίστεως μόνον. 25 Ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ Ῥαὰβ ἡ πόρνη οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων ἐδικαιώθη ὑποδεξαμένη τοὺς ἀγγέλους* καὶ ἑτέρᾳ ὁδῷ ἐκβαλοῦσα; 26 Ὥσπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα χωρὶς πνεύματος νεκρόν ἐστιν, οὕτως καὶ ἡ πίστις χωρὶς τῶν ἔργων νεκρά ἐστιν.
* 2:1 προσωποληψιαις f35 [99%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ προσωπολημψιαις ℵA,B,C [1%] NU 2:2 την f35 A [96.5%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — ℵB,C [3.5%] NU 2:3 και επιβλεψητε f35 ℵA [93%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ ~ 2 δε B,C [7%] NU § 2:3 λαμπραν εσθητα f35 [30%] ¦ ~ 2 την 1 ℵA,B,C [70%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP,NU * 2:3 αυτω f35 [91%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — ℵA,B,C [9%] NU (Would not James, a Jew, write ‘to him’?) 2:3 ὧδε rell ¦ ὦδε f35 [40%] (Since there appears to be no difference in meaning, I follow the usual spelling, but wish to record the variant for possible future reference; a similar statement will obtain wherever the word occurs.) 2:3 εκει η καθου f35 ℵA (97%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP,NU ¦ ~ 231 B (2%) ECM ¦ 1 και 3 C (0.6%) ¦ two other variants § 2:3 ωδε f35 ℵ (93.2%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — A,B,C (6.8%) NU * 2:4 ου f35 ℵA,C (26.8%) NU ¦ και 1 (72.2%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ και (0.6%) ¦ — B (0.4%) (The protasis occupies verses 2 and 3; the και looks to me like an infelicitous gloss introduced by copyists who lost the flow of the argument.) 2:5 του κοσμου f35 (90.7%) RP,HF,OC,CP ¦ 12 τουτου (5.6%) TR ¦ τω κοσμω ℵA,B,C (2.4%) NU ¦ εν τω κοσμω (0.4%) ¦ και τω κοσμω (0.2%) ¦ εν κοσμω (0.8%) 2:8 σεαυτον f35 ℵA(B)C [50%] RP,HF,OC,TR,NU ¦ εαυτον [50%] CP (It would be easy to drop one of the two sigmas—ΩCCΕΑΥΤΟΝ) § 2:9 προσωποληπτειτε f35 [98.5%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ προσωπολημπτειτε ℵA,B,C [1.5%] NU * 2:10 τηρησει f35 [89.5%] RP,HF,TR,CP ¦ τηρηση ℵB,C [1.5%] OC,NU ¦ τελεσει [3%] ¦ πληρωσει A [5%] ¦ three other variants (Since the apodosis is indicative, the protasis is too; James isn’t being hypothetical.) 2:10 πταισει f35 [96.5%] RP,HF,TR,CP ¦ πταιση ℵA,B,C [3%] OC,NU ¦ two other variants 2:11 μη μοιχευσης … μη φονευσης f35 A,B [74%] OC,TR,CP,NU ¦ μη μοιχευσεις … μη φονευσεις [7%] RP,HF [ECM says that ℵ [3%] are ambiguous as to these first two variants—in uncial script they are very similar] ¦ μη μοιχευσης … ου φονευσεις [1%] ¦ μη μοιχευσεις … ου φονευσεις [5%] ¦ μη φονευσης … μη μοιχευσης C [4%] ¦ μη φονευσης … ου μοιχευσεις [3%] ¦ μη φονευσεις … μη μοιχευσεις [0.5%] ¦ μη φονευσης … ου μοιχευσης [1.5%] (There are two other variants plus another ambiguity that account for [1%].) § 2:11 μοιχευσεις φονευσεις f35 [74%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ μοιχευεις φονευεις ℵA,B,C [5%] NU ¦ μοιχευσης φονευσης [8%] ¦ μοιχευσης φονευσεις [4%] ¦ μοιχευσεις φονευσης [1%] ¦ μοιχευεις φονευσεις [1%] ¦ μοιχευσεις φονευεις [1.5%] ¦ φονευσεις μοιχευσεις [4%] ¦ φονευεις μοιχευεις [1%] ¦ two other variants * 2:13 ανηλεος f35 [20%] ¦ ανελεος ℵA,B,C [30%] RP,HF,OC,NU ¦ ανιλεως [50%] CP,TR (That someone would have introduced an Attic form in the middle ages is scarcely credible, so f35 is early.) 2:13 κατακαυχαται f35 ℵB,C [85%] RP,HF,OC,CP,NU ¦ 1 δε [10%] ¦ και 1 [3%] TR ¦ κατακαυχασθω [1%] ¦ κατακαυχασθω δε A [1%] ¦ two other variants 2:13 ελεον f35 C [80%] RP,HF,CP ¦ ελεος ℵA,B [20%] OC,TR,NU (I take ‘the law of liberty’ to be the subject of the verb, κατακαυχαται, and ‘mercy’ its direct object—“That law exalts mercy over judgment”. But that subject is in a prior sentence, and one has to stop and think.) § 2:14 λεγη τις f35 ℵB [70%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP,NU ¦ ~ 21 A,C [1%] ¦ λεγει 2 [28%] ¦ three other variants * 2:14 εχει f35 [46%] ¦ εχη ℵA,B,C [47%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP,NU ¦ εχειν [4.5%] ¦ σχη [2.5%] (James is stating a fact; the person doesn’t have works.) 2:15 δε f35 A,C [84%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — ℵB [15%] NU ¦ two other variants 2:15 ωσιν f35 A [95%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — ℵB,C [5%] NU § 2:17 εργα εχη f35 [75%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ ~ 21 ℵA,B,C [24%] NU ¦ three other variants * 2:18 εκ f35 (88.2%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ χωρις ℵA,B,C (10.8%) NU ¦ two other variants (This delightful verse is generally misunderstood to this day. [At least three of the four Alexandrian variants in this verse derive from misunderstanding.] The translations that close the quote after the first ‘works’ don’t make sense. The hypothetical objector has disclaimed faith, so for James to say, “Show me your faith,” doesn’t follow. James clearly teaches salvation by faith, a faith that is alive [if you’re alive you do things]. But an orthodox Jew believes in salvation by works, so here James [who had once been one] anticipates an objection from that quarter. The salvation-by-works person has a different faith.) 2:18 σου f35 C [92%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — ℵA,B [8%] NU 2:18 δειξω σοι f35 A,C [92%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ ~ 21 ℵB [8%] NU § 2:18 μου f35 A [93%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — ℵB,C [7%] NU ¦ one other variant * 2:19 ο θεος εις εστιν f35 (80.4%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ 234 (9.9%) ¦ ~ 324 B (4.2%) ¦ ~ 3124 C (1.6%) ¦ ~ 3412 ℵA (1.8%) NU ¦ ~ 342 (0.8%) ¦ 124 (0.6%) ¦ 24 (0.6%) ¦ ~ 42 (0.2%) (In his retort James cites a central tenet in Judaism. Since the demons believe the same thing, and it doesn’t do them any good, something more or different is needed.) 2:20 νεκρα f35 ℵA (98.2%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ αργη B,C (1.6%) NU ¦ κενη (0.2%) 2:21 ἁβρααμ f35 [50%] ¦ ἀβρααμ ℵA,B,C [50%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP,NU (This statement of evidence obtains in verse 23 as well.) [When Jehovah changed Abram’s name to Abraham (Genesis 17:5) the intervocalic aspiration in Hebrew is adequately represented in English by ‘h’; but so far as I know, there is no way in Greek to indicate intervocalic aspiration within a word—the only alternative to losing the aspiration altogether would be to place it at the beginning of the word.] § 2:24 τοινυν οτι f35 (87.5%) RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ 2 ℵA,B,C (11.3%) NU ¦ ~ 2 ουτως (1.2%) * 2:25 αγγελους rell ¦ κατασκοπους C [10%] 2:26 των f35 A,C [92%] RP,HF,OC,TR,CP ¦ — 𝕻20ℵB [8%] NU