*12:1 In other words, while making a treaty with Assyria they are covering their options by trying to gain support from Egypt as well by sending supplies of olive oil.
†12:3 Literally, “he grasped his brother's heel.”
‡12:9 This refers to the Festival of Tabernacles where the people lived outside in tents or shelters for a week to remember their journey through the wilderness.
§12:11 The word used here is the same as in Beth-aven, the parody name for Bethel, signifying the worship of idols who are truly worthless, they are nothing.
*12:11 This verse suggests mixed worship that merged idols with the true God. Like rocks in a ploughed field, this was barrier to knowing the true God.
†12:12 Israel was the new name God gave to Jacob.
‡12:13 The prophet referenced here is Moses.
§12:13 The same word is used for Jacob looking after sheep and the Lord looking after Israel through Moses.