*13:4 A variation of the Ten Commandments with “know” replacing “have” (Exodus 20:3). This change is significant in that the word “know” carries overtones of intimate relations, and can be linked to the erotic nature of Baal worship. Israel should not be “knowing” Baal but the true God.
†13:5 “It was like pasture to them,” or “I fed them.”
‡13:6 See the warning that this could happen in Deuteronomy 8:11-14.
§13:11 The verb forms used here are not past tense, so the usual translation referring back to God's provision of king Saul in response to the people's demands is problematic here. Since Hosea is dealing with the present situation of the northern kingdom, one interpretation is that the king God is giving is the king of Assyria, and the one he is taking is the king of Israel. Though in the previous verse God does mention the people's previous demand for a king, he begins that verse with the current question, “Where then is your king?”
*13:12 “Eradicated”: literally, “concealed.” What Hosea seems to be saying is that Israel's sins have come to the point that God has to take action by eliminating the problem by allowing invasion and exile. The worship of Baal has to be ended (“concealed”—but not in sense of it being simply hidden away and continuing).
†13:13 This could refer to the problems of a breech baby delivery in which both mother and baby could potentially die.
‡13:15 Or “brothers.”